Leaf litter made of beech and oak leaf litter is chopped, mixed homogenously and direclty usable.
I use a leaf litter from our own sustainable forestry made out of beech and oak litter. As I collect in our own forest, some other leafes might be included due to winds transporting them from other parts. It is directly usable for the feeding of beetle larvae and ideal arrangemend for the breeding box. Depending on the species and variety you keep the humidity and height of the substrate in the box needs to be adapted. White rotten wood can be added in desired amounts.
For isopods and many stag beetles and giant beetles the proportion of white rotten wood should be higher than 50%. But in general Flake Soil is the better choice. For rose beetles leaf litter is a good breeding and raising medium for the larvae.
Depending on species, white rotten breeding logs need to be incorporated. Beetle will lay their eggs in the logs depending on species. Larvae also feed on the logs.
Leaf litter is a basic substrate. Records regarding size can only be reached with flake soil and kinshi.
Generelly a good ventilation is very important to avoid anorexia inside the breeding box as well as in the closed bags you receive.